abdominal aorta

The abdominal aorta (plural: aortas or aortae ) is the main blood vessel in the abdominal cavity that transmits oxygenated blood from the thoracic cavity to the organs within the abdomen and to the lower limbs.

Summary

Gross anatomy

Origin

It is a continuation of descending thoracic aorta at T12 posterior to the median arcuate ligament and diaphragmatic crura.

Course

It descends caudally in the retroperitoneum, anterior and slightly to the left of the lumbar vertebral bodies. The IVC lies to its right.

Between the celiac and superior mesenteric artery origins, it is crossed anteriorly by the splenic vein and body of the pancreas and between the superior mesenteric and inferior mesenteric artery origins, it is crossed anteriorly by the left renal vein, uncinate process of the pancreas and 3 part of the duodenum.

Termination

It eventually terminates at the L4 level by bifurcating into right and left common iliac arteries. This is also where the origin of median sacral artery is, which descends along the middle of sacral promontory.

Branches

Branches of the abdominal aorta can be thought of as belonging to a number of groups.

Single ventral branches (to the gut and related viscera)
Paired branches to other viscera
Paired branches to abdominal wall
Single parietal branches

Variant anatomy

Related pathology