Galeazzi and Monteggia fracture-dislocations (mnemonic)

There are several mnemonics for the difference between a Galeazzi and a Monteggia fracture-dislocation:

  • MUGR (pronounced as mugger)
  • FROG
  • GRUesome MURder
  • Manchester United / Glasgow Rangers

It is useful to note that it is the head of the non-fractured bone that is dislocated.



GRIMUS helps to remember which forearm bone is fractured and whether the distal ("inferior") or proximal ("superior") part of the bone is involved.

  • G: Galeazzi
    • R: radius
    • I: inferior
  • M: Monteggia
    • U: ulna
    • S: superior
  • Monteggia involves fracture of the ulna with proximal radial dislocation
  • Galeazzi involves fracture of the radius with distal radioulnar dislocation
  • Fractured radius of Galeazzi
GRUesome MURder

GRUesome MURder assists remembering which bone is firstly fractured and then secondly which is dislocated:

  • G: Galeazzi R: radius fracture U: ulna dislocation
  • M: Monteggia U: ulna fracture R: radial head dislocation
Manchester United / Glasgow Rangers

Two British football (soccer) teams, with devoted followings:

  • Man U: Monteggia / ulnar fracture
  • Glasgow Rangers: Galeazzi / radial fracture